program designers must control all training variables. They must
account for the Specificity of Training Principle and The Overload
Principle. In my training program designs, I also account for
my Twenty Percent Principle, my Arterial Blood Flow Principle,
my Deceleration Muscle Training Principle, my Relaxation Instant
Principle and my Bi-Lateral Training Principle. Training program
designs must have sufficient flexibility to train wide fitness
ranges. Interval Training Principles completely control training
and recovery intervals.
training intervals, athletes perform training activities. Training
program designers specifically describe perfect training interval
motor unit contraction and relaxation sequences. During early
training, athletes repetitively perform perfect training interval
motor unit techniques. Until athletes demonstrate perfect techniques,
they cannot advance to next training program levels.
my pitching interval training program, every exercise teaches
pitchers to perform perfect pitching motor unit contraction and
relaxation sequences. When pitchers perfectly practice pitching
techniques, they benefit from training against resistances greater
than baseball's weight and at slower than competitive pitch velocities.
aerobic competitions, training program designers must maintain
training interval intensities at slightly higher than athletes'
anaerobic thresholds. Athletes perform constant repetition numbers
in decreasing time periods. Aerobic muscular systems increase
athletes' anaerobic thresholds. After aerobic athletes complete
training intervals without distress for four consecutive training
sessions, they advance to next training interval stress levels.
With properly designed stress level increases, aerobic athletes'
anaerobic thresholds steadily increase.
do not train aerobically. Nevertheless, pitching training programs
should end with aerobic training because aerobic training metabolizes
lactic acid accumulations. Eliminating lactic acid accumulations
reduce training stiffness and soreness.
anaerobic competitions, training program designers maximize training
interval intensities. Athletes perform increasing repetition
numbers over increasing time periods. During early training intervals,
anaerobic athletes master perfect motor unit techniques. After
athletes perfect techniques, they start anaerobic training intervals.
Anaerobic muscular systems function normally at higher lactic
acid accumulations. After anaerobic athletes training intervals
for four consecutive training sessions without distress, they
advance to next training interval stress levels.
do not train anaerobically. However, pitchers train above their
anaerobic thresholds. Therefore, during early training, pitchers
produce lactic acid. Thereafter, pitchers should not produce
sufficient lactic acid for muscle stiffness and/or soreness.
ballistic competitions, training program designers require perfect
motor unit contraction and relaxation sequences. Ballistic training
economically applies force, decelerates high velocity limbs and
perfects motor unit contraction and relaxation sequences. Athletes
practice perfect motor unit contraction and relaxation sequences
at increasing intensities. Neuromuscular brain control centers
recognize repeated perfect motor unit contraction and relaxation
sequences and realign protoplasm into engrams. After ballistic
athletes complete training intervals for four consecutive training
sessions without errors, they advance to next training interval
is a ballistic activity. Pitching training programs teach perfect
pitching motor unit contraction and relaxation sequences. Thousands
of perfect pitching technique hours create pitching engrams.
program designers must carefully control training interval stress
levels. Designers manipulate training intensities, resistance
amount and repetition numbers. Athletes generally start new exercises
at one-half maximum intensities. However, untrained aerobic athletes'
anaerobic thresholds are approximately forty percent maximum
intensities. Therefore, aerobic athletes should not start aerobic
training intervals at ten percent above anaerobic thresholds.
When aerobic athletes perform training intervals at one-half
intensities without day-after muscle stiffness and soreness,
training program designers decrease resistances.
and ballistic athletes have no difficulty starting training intervals
at one-half maximum intensities. Some anaerobic and ballistic
athletes may start training intervals at higher intensities.
Therefore, training program designers must require all anaerobic
and ballistic athletes to start training intervals at one-half
maximum intensities. Otherwise, their muscles become too stiff
and sore to appropriately train the next day.
program designers must carefully control training interval stress
increases. Designers control training interval intensities, training
interval resistances and repetition numbers.
training programs maintain very high repetition numbers and manipulate
intensities and resistances. Anaerobic training programs maintain
very high intensities and manipulate resistances and repetition
numbers. Ballistic training programs concentrate on perfect motor
unit contraction and relaxation sequences at maximum intensities.
program designers should gradually increase training interval
stress levels. Athletes should barely notice the increments.
However, athletes must stress their physiological systems sufficiently
to stimulate physiological adaptations to meet training overloads.
Muscles require little training interval stress to initiate physiological
adaptations. Smaller stress increments succeed much, much better
than larger stress increments. When athletes argue that they
want larger stress increments, answer, "What are you going
to do tomorrow?" If they accomplish everything today, then
what will they have to accomplish tomorrow? Athletes should always
finish wanting to train more.
train every day. More than thirty-six hours without appropriately
stressing desired physiological systems and regression sets in.
Athletes always practice with perfect motor unit contraction
and relaxation sequences. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
Therefore, training intervals never fatigue perfect motor unit
training program designers overload physiological systems with
weights, they maintain repetition numbers in fixed time periods
and gradually increase weight. When training program designers
cannot or do not overload physiological systems with weights,
they still maintain repetition numbers, but they decrease time
periods. In this way, designers use time as overload.
program designers must carefully control numbers of training
phase sets during training sessions. When training activities
have general applications, designers use one set per training
session. When training activities are highly complicated motor
skills, designers use three to six sets per training session.
When training activities are uncomplicated motor skills and require
physiological adaptations, designers use eight to twelve sets
per training sessions.
6. Final Stress
program designers must carefully control final training stress
levels. Athletes have physiological limits. However, designers
should never set limits. When athletes cannot perform training
intervals at required stress levels for four consecutive training
sessions, they demonstrate their final stress levels. When athletes
cannot perform training intervals at required stress levels for
four consecutive training sessions, they should return to their
last successfully completed stress levels. Those stress levels
are their final stress levels. Because athletes' psychological
limits are lower than their physiological limits, wherever possible,
athletes should not know the stress levels at which they are
program designers must carefully control training session frequencies.
Athletes train daily. However, when athletes tear connective
tissues, they should not train daily. When endomysium connective
tissue tears, athletes increase urinary hydroxyproline excretions.
Body building training programs frequently increase urinary hydroxyproline
excretions. Sport activity training fitness programs should not
tear endomysium connective tissues.
researchers argue that anaerobic athletes cannot train daily.
They claim that daily anaerobic training depletes FTG muscle
system muscle glycogen and depletes the livers' muscle glycogen
reserve stores. However, anaerobic athletes should only deplete
their FTG muscle glycogen stores during competitions. Anaerobic
training intervals should not deplete FTG muscle glycogen stores.
During anaerobic training, athletes train to tolerate increased
lactic acid accumulations, not to deplete muscle glycogen stores.
training never depletes STO muscle glycogen or muscle tri-glyceride
stores. During aerobic training, athletes improve oxygen transport
and decrease the time to muscle tri-glyceride metabolism. During
competitions, aerobic athletes maintain blood volumes.
training maintains perfect motor unit contraction and relaxation
sequences. Ballistic activities demand perfect motor unit contraction
and relaxation sequence practice every day throughout the year.
Ballistic athletes do not benefit from a detraining day.
maintain physiological adaptations requires less daily training
stress than to achieve increased physiological adaptations. Maintenance
training stress must stimulate physiological systems, but not
require physiological adaptations. In general, athletes maintenance
train for maintenance at three-quarters final stress levels,
i. e., three-quarters maximum intensities, three-quarters resistances
and three-quarters repetitions.
training intervals, athletes need recovery intervals. Athletes
must completely recover from training intervals before they start
their next training intervals.
training intervals produce lactic acid. Lactic acid accumulations
cause oxygen debts. Therefore, anaerobic athletes heavily breath
to transport sufficient oxygen to mitachondria to metabolize
lactic acid accumulations. Consequently, mild aerobic activities
during the first one-half of recovery help STO muscle systems
to metabolize lactic acid accumulations. Metabolizing lactic
acid decreases the time athletes require to recover from anaerobic
training phases. Anaerobic athletes' breathing and heart rates
should return to normal for several minutes before they start
another anaerobic training interval. Anaerobic recovery intervals'
time periods should be at least six times the anaerobic training
intervals' time periods.
training intervals produce carbon-dioxide and water. Aerobic
athletes activate oxygen transport systems and metabolize muscle
triglycerides. Other than fluids that all athletes should replenish
during recovery intervals, aerobic athletes require nothing.
Nevertheless, aerobic athletes' breathing and heart rates should
return to normal before they start another aerobic training interval,
Aerobic training intervals' time periods should be at least three
times the aerobic training intervals' time periods.