10.01 (a) The league president shall appoint an official
scorer for each league championship game. The official scorer
shall observe the game from a position in the press box. The
scorer shall have sole authority to make all decisions involving
judgment, such as whether a batter's advance to first base is
the result of a hit or an error. He shall communicate such decisions
to the press box and broadcasting booths by hand signals or over
the press box loud speaker system, and shall advise the public
address announcer of such decisions if requested. The Official
Scorer must make all decisions concerning judgment calls within
twenty four (24) hours after a game has been officially concluded.
No judgment decision shall be changed thereafter except, upon
immediate application to the League President, the scorer may
request a change, citing the reasons for such. In all cases,
the official scorer is not permitted to make a scoring decision
which is in conflict with the scoring rules. After each game,
including forfeited and called games, the scorer shall prepare
a report, on a form prescribed by the league president, listing
the date of the game, where it was played, the names of the competing
clubs and the umpires, the full score of the game, and all records
of individual players compiled according to the system specified
in these Official Scoring Rules. He shall forward this report
to the league office within thirty six hours after the game ends.
He shall forward the report of any suspended game within thirty
six hours after the game has been completed, or after it becomes
an official game because it cannot be completed, as provided
by the Official Playing Rules.
(b) (1) To achieve uniformity
in keeping the records of championship games, the scorer shall
conform strictly to the Official Scoring Rules. The scorer shall
have authority to rule on any point not specifically covered
in these rules.
(2) If the teams change sides
before three men are put out, the scorer shall immediately inform
the umpire of the mistake.
(3) If the game is protested
or suspended, the scorer shall make a note of the exact situation
at the time of the protest or suspension, including the score,
the number of outs, the position of any runners, and the ball
and strike count on the batter.
NOTE: It is important that a suspended game resume
with exactly the same situation as existed at the time of suspension.
If a protested game is ordered replayed from the point of protest,
it must be resumed with exactly the situation that existed just
before the protested play.
(4) The scorer shall not make
any decision conflicting with the Official Playing Rules, or
with an umpire's decision.
(5) The scorer shall not call
the attention of the umpire or of any member of either team to
the fact that a player is batting out of turn.
(c) (1) The scorer is an official
representative of the league, and is entitled to the respect
and dignity of his office, and shall be accorded full protection
by the league president. The scorer shall report to the president
any indignity expressed by any manager, player, club employee
or club officer in the course of, or as the result of, the discharge
of his duties.
10.02 The official score report prescribed by the league
president shall make provisions for entering the information
listed below, in a form convenient for the compilation of permanent
(a) The following records for
each batter and runner:
(1) Number of times he batted,
except that no time at bat shall be charged against a player
(i) He hits a sacrifice bunt
or sacrifice fly
(ii) He is awarded first base
on four called balls
(iii) He is hit by a pitched
(iv) He is awarded first base
because of interference or obstruction.
(2) Number of runs scored
(3) Number of safe hits
(4) Number of runs batted in
(5) Two base hits
(6) Three base hits
(7) Home runs
(8) Total bases on safe hits
(9) Stolen bases
(10) Sacrifice bunts
(11) Sacrifice flies
(12) Total number of bases on
(13) Separate listing of any
intentional bases on balls
(14) Number of times hit by a
(15) Number of times awarded
first base for interference or obstruction.
(b) The following records for
(1) Number of putouts
(2) Number of assists
(3) Number of errors
(4) Number of double plays participated
(5) Number of triple plays participated
(c) The following records for
(1) Number of innings pitched.
NOTE: In computing innings pitched, count each putout
as one third of an inning. If a starting pitcher is replaced
with one out in the sixth inning, credit that pitcher with 5
1/3 innings. If a starting pitcher is replaced with none out
in the sixth inning, credit that pitcher with 5 innings, and
make the notation that he faced ___ batters in the sixth. If
a relief pitcher retires two batters and is replaced, credit
that pitcher with 2/3 inning pitched.
(2) Total number of batters faced
(3) Number of batters officially
at bat against pitcher computed according to 10.02 (a) (1).
(4) Number of hits allowed
(5) Number of runs allowed
(6) Number of earned runs allowed
(7) Number of home runs allowed
(8) Number of sacrifice hits
(9) Number of sacrifice flies
(10) Total number of bases on
(11) Separate listing of any
intentional bases on balls allowed
(12) Number of batters hit by
(13) Number of strikeouts
(14) Number of wild pitches
(15) Number of balks
(d) The following additional
(1) Name of the winning pitcher
(2) Name of the losing pitcher
(3) Names of the starting pitcher
and the finishing pitcher for each team.
(4) Name of pitcher credited
(e) Number of passed balls allowed
by each catcher.
(f) Name of players participating
in double plays and triple plays.
EXAMPLE: Double Plays_Jones,
Roberts and Smith (2). Triple Play_Jones and Smith.
(g) Number of runners left on
base by each team. This total shall include all runners who get
on base by any means and who do not score and are not put out.
Include in this total a batter runner whose batted ball results
in another runner being retired for the third out.
(h) Names of batters who hit
home runs with bases full.
(i) Names of batters who ground
into force double plays and reverse force double plays.
(j) Names of runners caught stealing.
(k) Number of outs when winning
run scored, if game is won in last half inning.
(l) The score by innings for
(m) Names of umpires, listed
in this order
(1) plate umpire,
(2) first base umpire,
(3) second base umpire,
(4) third base umpire.
(n) Time required to play the
game, with delays for weather or light failure deducted.
10.03 (a) In compiling the official score report, the
official scorer shall list each player's name and his fielding
position or positions in the order in which the player batted,
or would have batted if the game ends before he gets to bat.
NOTE: When a player does not exchange positions with
another fielder but is merely placed in a different spot for
a particular batter, do not list this as a new position.
EXAMPLES: (1) Second baseman goes to the outfield
to form a four man outfield.
(2) Third baseman moves to a
position between shortstop and second baseman.
(b) Any player who enters the
game as a substitute batter or substitute runner, whether or
not he continues in the game thereafter, shall be identified
in the batting order by a special symbol which shall refer to
a separate record of substitute batters and runners. Lower case
letters are recommended as symbols for substitute batters, and
numerals as symbols for substitute runners. The record of substitute
batters shall describe what the substitute batter did.
EXAMPLES - "a - Singled for ___ in third
inning; b - Flied out for ___ in sixth inning; c - Forced ___
for ___ in seventh inning; d - Grounded out for ___ in ninth
inning; 1 - Ran for ___ in ninth inning. The record of substitute
batters and runners shall include the name of any such substitute
whose name is announced, but who is removed for a second substitute
before he actually gets into the game. Such substitution shall
be recorded as "e Announced as substitute for ___ in seventh
inning." Any such second substitute shall be recorded as
batting or running for the first announced substitute.
HOW TO PROVE A BOX SCORE
(c) A box score is in balance
(or proved) when the total of the team's times at bat, bases
on balls received, hit batters, sacrifice bunts, sacrifice flies
and batters awarded first base because of interference or obstruction
equals the total of that team's runs, players left on base and
the opposing team's putouts.
WHEN PLAYER BATS OUT OF TURN
(d) When a player bats out of
turn, and is put out, and the proper batter is called out before
the ball is pitched to the next batter, charge the proper batter
with a time at bat and score the putout and any assists the same
as if the correct batting order had been followed. If an improper
batter becomes a runner and the proper batter is called out for
having missed his turn at bat, charge the proper batter with
a time at bat, credit the putout to the catcher, and ignore everything
entering into the improper batter's safe arrival on base. If
more than one batter bats out of turn in succession score all
plays just as they occur, skipping the turn at bat of the player
or players who first missed batting in the proper order.
CALLED AND FORFEITED GAMES
(e) (1) If a regulation game
is called, include the record of all individual and team actions
up to the moment the game ends, as defined in Rules 4.10 and
4.11. If it is a tie game, do not enter a winning or losing pitcher.
(2) If a regulation game is forfeited,
include the record of all individual and team actions up to the
time of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeit is ahead at the
time of forfeit, enter as winning and losing pitchers the players
who would have qualified if the game had been called at the time
of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeit is behind or if the
score is tied at the time of forfeit, do not enter a winning
or losing pitcher. If a game is forfeited before it becomes a
regulation game, include no records. Report only the fact of
RUNS BATTED IN
10.04 (a) Credit the batter with a run batted in for
every run which reaches home base because of the batter's safe
hit, sacrifice bunt, sacrifice fly, infield out or fielder's
choice; or which is forced over the plate by reason of the batter
becoming a runner with the bases full (on a base on balls, or
an award of first base for being touched by a pitched ball, or
for interference or obstruction).
(1) Credit a run batted in for
the run scored by the batter who hits a home run. Credit a run
batted in for each runner who is on base when the home run is
hit and who scores ahead of the batter who hits the home run.
(2) Credit a run batted in for
the run scored when, before two are out, an error is made on
a play on which a runner from third base ordinarily would score.
(b) Do not credit a run batted
in when the batter grounds into a force double play or a reverse
force double play.
(c) Do not credit a run batted
in when a fielder is charged with an error because he muffs a
throw at first base which would have completed a force double
(d) Scorer's judgment must determine
whether a run batted in shall be credited for a run which scores
when a fielder holds the ball, or throws to a wrong base. Ordinarily,
if the runner keeps going, credit a run batted in; if the runner
stops and takes off again when he notices the misplay, credit
the run as scored on a fielder's choice.
10.05 A base hit shall be scored in the following cases:
(a) When a batter reaches first
base (or any succeeding base) safely on a fair ball which settles
on the ground or touches a fence before being touched by a fielder,
or which clears a fence;
(b) When a batter reaches first
base safely on a fair ball hit with such force, or so slowly,
that any fielder attempting to make a play with it has no opportunity
to do so;
NOTE: A hit shall be scored if the fielder attempting
to handle the ball cannot make a play, even if such fielder deflects
the ball from or cuts off another fielder who could have put
out a runner.
(c) When a batter reaches first
base safely on a fair ball which takes an unnatural bounce so
that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort, or which
touches the pitcher's plate or any base, (including home plate),
before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder
cannot handle it with ordinary effort;
(d) When a batter reaches first
base safely on a fair ball which has not been touched by a fielder
and which is in fair territory when it reaches the outfield unless
in the scorer's judgment it could have been handled with ordinary
(e) When a fair ball which has
not been touched by a fielder touches a runner or an umpire.
EXCEPTION: Do not score a hit when a runner is
called out for having been touched by an Infield Fly;
(f) When a fielder unsuccessfully
attempts to put out a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment
the batter runner would not have been put out at first base by
NOTE: In applying the above rules, always give the
batter the benefit of the doubt. A safe course to follow is to
score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ball fails
to result in a putout.
10.06 A base hit shall not be scored in the following
(a) When a runner is forced out
by a batted ball, or would have been forced out except for a
(b) When the batter apparently
hits safely and a runner who is forced to advance by reason of
the batter becoming a runner fails to touch the first base to
which he is advancing and is called out on appeal. Charge the
batter with a time at bat but no hit;
(c) When the pitcher, the catcher
or any infielder handles a batted ball and puts out a preceding
runner who is attempting to advance one base or to return to
his original base, or would have put out such runner with ordinary
effort except for a fielding error. Charge the batter with a
time at bat but no hit;
(d) When a fielder fails in an
attempt to put out a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment
the batter runner could have been put out at first base.
NOTE: This shall not apply if the fielder merely
looks toward or feints toward another base before attempting
to make the putout at first base;
(e) When a runner is called out
for interference with a fielder attempting to field a batted
ball, unless in the scorer's judgment the batter runner would
have been safe had the interference not occurred.
DETERMINING VALUE OF BASE
10.07 Whether a safe hit shall be scored as one base
hit, two base hit, three base hit or home run when no error or
putout results shall be determined as follows:
(a) Subject to the provisions
of 10.07 (b) and (c), it is a one base hit if the batter stops
at first base; it is a two base hit if the batter stops at second
base; it a three base hit if the batter stops at third base;
it is a home run if the batter touches all bases and scores.
(b) When, with one or more runners
on base, the batter advances more than one base on a safe hit
and the defensive team makes an attempt to put out a preceding
runner, the scorer shall determine whether the batter made a
legitimate two base hit or three base hit, or whether he advanced
beyond first base on the fielder's choice.
NOTE: Do not credit the batter with a three base
hit when a preceding runner is put out at the plate, or would
have been out but for an error. Do not credit the batter with
a two base hit when a preceding runner trying to advance from
first base is put out at third base, or would have been out but
for an error. However, with the exception of the above, do not
determine the value of base hits by the number of bases advanced
by a preceding runner. A batter may deserve a two base hit even
though a preceding runner advances one or no bases; he may deserve
only a one base hit even though he reaches second base and a
preceding runner advances two bases.
EXAMPLES: (1) Runner on first, batter hits to
right fielder, who throws to third base in unsuccessful attempt
to put out runner. Batter takes second base. Credit batter with
one base hit.
(2) Runner on second. Batter
hits fair fly ball. Runner holds up to determine if ball is caught,
and advances only to third base, while batter takes second. Credit
batter with two base hit.
(3) Runner on third. Batter hits
high fair fly. Runner takes lead, then runs back to tag up, thinking
ball will be caught. Ball falls safe, but runner cannot score,
although batter has reached second. Credit batter with two base
(c) When the batter attempts
to make a two base hit or a three base hit by sliding, he must
hold the last base to which he advances. If he overslides and
is tagged out before getting back to the base safely, he shall
be credited with only as many bases as he attained safely. If
he overslides second base and is tagged out, he shall be credited
with a one base hit; if he overslides third base and is tagged
out, he shall be credited with a two base hit.
NOTE: If the batter overruns second or third base
and is tagged out trying to return, he shall be credited with
the last base he touched. If he runs past second base after reaching
that base on his feet, attempts to return and is tagged out,
he shall be credited with a two base hit. If he runs past third
base after reaching that base on his feet, attempts to return
and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a three base hit.
(d) When the batter, after making
a safe hit, is called out for having failed to touch a base,
the last base he reached safely shall determine if he shall be
credited with a one base hit, a two base hit or a three base
hit. If he is called out after missing home base, he shall be
credited with a three base hit. If he is called out for missing
third base, he shall be credited with a two base hit. If he is
called out for missing second base, he shall be credited with
a one base hit. If he is called out for missing first base, he
shall be charged with a time at bat, but no hit.
(e) When the batter runner is
awarded two bases, three bases or a home run under the provisions
of Playing Rules 7.05 or 7.06 (a), he shall be credited with
a two base hit, a three base hit or a home run, as the case may
GAME ENDING HITS
(f) Subject to the provisions
of 10.07 (g), when the batter ends a game with a safe hit which
drives in as many runs as are necessary to put his team in the
lead, he shall be credited with only as many bases on his hit
as are advanced by the runner who scores the winning run, and
then only if the batter runs out his hit for as many bases as
are advanced by the runner who scores the winning run.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when the batter is theoretically
entitled to more bases because of being awarded an "automatic"
extra base hit under various provisions of Playing Rules 6.09
(g) When the batter ends a game
with a home run hit out of the playing field, he and any runners
on base are entitled to score.
10.08 A stolen base shall be credited to a runner whenever
he advances one base unaided by a hit, a putout, an error, a
force out, a fielder's choice, a passed ball, a wild pitch or
a balk, subject to the following:
(a) When a runner starts for
the next base before the pitcher delivers the ball and the pitch
results in what ordinarily is scored a wild pitch or passed ball,
credit the runner with a stolen base and do not charge the misplay.
EXCEPTION: If, as a result of the misplay, the
stealing runner advances an extra base, or another runner also
advances, score the wild pitch or passed ball as well as the
(b) When a runner is attempting
to steal, and the catcher, after receiving the pitch, makes a
wild throw trying to prevent the stolen base, credit a stolen
base. Do not charge an error unless the wild throw permits the
stealing runner to advance one or more extra bases, or permits
another runner to advance, in which case credit the stolen base
and charge one error to the catcher.
(c) When a runner, attempting
to steal, or after being picked off base, evades being put out
in a run down play and advances to the next base without the
aid of an error, credit the runner with a stolen base. If another
runner also advances on the play, credit both runners with stolen
bases. If a runner advances while another runner, attempting
to steal, evades being put out in a run down play and returns
safely, without the aid of an error, to the base he originally
occupied, credit a stolen base to the runner who advances.
(d) When a double or triple steal
is attempted and one runner is thrown out before reaching and
holding the base he is attempting to steal, no other runner shall
be credited with a stolen base.
(e) When a runner is tagged out
after oversliding a base, while attempting either to return to
that base or to advance to the next base, he shall not be credited
with a stolen base.
(f) When in the scorer's judgment
a runner attempting to steal is safe because of a muffed throw,
do not credit a stolen base. Credit an assist to the fielder
who made the throw; charge an error to the fielder who muffed
the throw, and charge the runner with "caught stealing."
(g) No stolen base shall be scored
when a runner advances solely because of the defensive team's
indifference to his advance. Score as a fielder's choice.
(h) A runner shall be charged
as "Caught Stealing" if he is put out, or would have
been put out by errorless play when he
(1) Tries to steal.
(2) Is picked off a base and
tries to advance (any move toward the next base shall be considered
an attempt to advance).
(3) Overslides while stealing.
NOTE: In those instances where a pitched ball eludes
the catcher and the runner is put out trying to advance, no caught
stealing shall be charged. No caught stealing should be charged
when a runner is awarded a base due to obstruction.
10.09 (a) Score a sacrifice bunt when, before two are
out, the batter advances one or more runners with a bunt and
is put out at first base, or would have been put out except for
a fielding error.
(b) Score a sacrifice bunt when,
before two are out, the fielders handle a bunted ball without
error in an unsuccessful attempt to put out a preceding runner
advancing one base.
EXCEPTION: When an attempt to turn a bunt into
a putout of a preceding runner fails, and in the scorer's judgment
perfect play would not have put out the batter at first base,
the batter shall be credited with a one base hit and not a sacrifice.
(c) Do not score a sacrifice
bunt when any runner is put out attempting to advance one base
on a bunt. Charge the batter with a time at bat.
(d) Do not score a sacrifice
bunt when, in the judgment of the scorer, the batter is bunting
primarily for a base hit and not for the purpose of advancing
a runner or runners. Charge the batter with a time at bat.
NOTE: In applying the above rule, always give the
batter the benefit of the doubt.
(e) Score a sacrifice fly when,
before two are out, the batter hits a fly ball or a line drive
handled by an outfielder or an infielder running in the outfield
(1) is caught, and a runner scores
after the catch, or
(2) is dropped, and a runner
scores, if in the scorer's judgment the runner could have scored
after the catch had the fly been caught.
NOTE: Score a sacrifice fly in accordance with 10.09
(e) (2) even though another runner is forced out by reason of
the batter becoming a runner.
10.10 A putout shall be credited to each fielder who
(1) catches a fly ball or a line
drive, whether fair or foul;
(2) catches a thrown ball which
puts out a batter or runner, or
(3) tags a runner when the runner
is off the base to which he legally is entitled.
(a) Automatic putouts shall be
credited to the catcher as follows:
(1) When the batter is called
out for an illegally batted ball;
(2) When the batter is called
out for bunting foul for his third strike; (Note exception in
10.17 (a) (4)).
(3) When the batter is called
out for being touched by his own batted ball;
(4) When the batter is called
out for interfering with the catcher.
(5) When the batter is called
out for failing to bat in his proper turn; (See 10.03 (d)).
(6) When the batter is called
out for refusing to touch first base after receiving a base on
(7) When a runner is called out
for refusing to advance from third base to home with the winning
(b) Other automatic putouts shall
be credited as follows (Credit no assists on these plays except
(1) When the batter is called
out on an Infield Fly which is not caught, credit the putout
to the fielder who the scorer believes could have made the catch;
(2) When a runner is called out
for being touched by a fair ball (including an Infield Fly),
credit the putout to the fielder nearest the ball;
(3) When a runner is called out
for running out of line to avoid being tagged, credit the putout
to the fielder whom the runner avoided;
(4) When a runner is called out
for passing another runner, credit the putout to the fielder
nearest the point of passing;
(5) When a runner is called out
for running the bases in reverse order, credit the putout to
the fielder covering the base he left in starting his reverse
(6) When a runner is called out
for having interfered with a fielder, credit the putout to the
fielder with whom the runner interfered, unless the fielder was
in the act of throwing the ball when the interference occurred,
in which case credit the putout to the fielder for whom the throw
was intended, and credit an assist to the fielder whose throw
was interfered with;
(7) When the batter runner is
called out because of interference by a preceding runner, as
provided in Playing Rule 6.05 (m), credit the putout to the first
baseman. If the fielder interfered with was in the act of throwing
the ball, credit him with an assist, but credit only one assist
on any one play under the provisions of 10.10 (b) (6) and (7).
10.11 An assist shall be credited to each fielder who
throws or deflects a batted or thrown ball in such a way that
a putout results, or would have resulted except for a subsequent
error by any fielder. Only one assist and no more shall be credited
to each fielder who throws or deflects the ball in a run down
play which results in a putout, or would have resulted in a putout,
except for a subsequent error.
NOTE: Mere ineffective contact with the ball
shall not be considered an assist. "Deflect" shall
mean to slow down or change the direction of the ball and thereby
effectively assist in putting out a batter or runner.
(a) Credit an assist to each
fielder who throws or deflects the ball during a play which results
in a runner being called out for interference, or for running
out of line.
(b) Do not credit an assist to
the pitcher on a strikeout.
EXCEPTION: Credit an assist if the pitcher fields
an uncaught third strike and makes a throw which results in a
(c) Do not credit an assist to
the pitcher when, as the result of a legal pitch received by
the catcher, a runner is put out, as when the catcher picks a
runner off base, throws out a runner trying to steal, or tags
a runner trying to score.
(d) Do not credit an assist to
a fielder whose wild throw permits a runner to advance, even
though the runner subsequently is put out as a result of continuous
play. A play which follows a misplay (whether or not it is an
error) is a new play, and the fielder making any misplay shall
not be credited with an assist unless he takes part in the new
DOUBLE PLAYS - TRIPLE PLAYS
10.12 Credit participation in the double play or triple
play to each fielder who earns a putout or an assist when two
or three players are put out between the time a pitch is delivered
and the time the ball next becomes dead or is next in possession
of the pitcher in pitching position, unless an error or misplay
intervenes between putouts.
NOTE: Credit the double play or triple play also
if an appeal play after the ball is in possession of the pitcher
results in an additional putout.
10.13 An error shall be charged for each misplay (fumble,
muff or wild throw) which prolongs the time at bat of a batter
or which prolongs the life of a runner, or which permits a runner
to advance one or more bases.
NOTE (1) Slow handling of the ball which does not involve
mechanical misplay shall not be construed as an error.
NOTE (2) It is not necessary that the fielder touch
the ball to be charged with an error. If a ground ball goes through
a fielder's legs or a pop fly falls untouched and in the scorer's
judgment the fielder could have handled the ball with ordinary
effort, an error shall be charged.
NOTE (3) Mental mistakes or misjudgments are not to
be scored as errors unless specifically covered in the rules.
(a) An error shall be charged
against any fielder when he muffs a foul fly, to prolong the
time at bat of a batter whether the batter subsequently reaches
first base or is put out.
(b) An error shall be charged
against any fielder when he catches a thrown ball or a ground
ball in time to put out the batter runner and fails to tag first
base or the batter runner.
(c) An error shall be charged
against any fielder when he catches a thrown ball or a ground
ball in time to put out any runner on a force play and fails
to tag the base or the runner.
(d) (1) An error shall be charged
against any fielder whose wild throw permits a runner to reach
a base safely, when in the scorer's judgment a good throw would
have put out the runner.
EXCEPTION: No error shall be charged under this
section if the wild throw is made attempting to prevent a stolen
(2) An error shall be charged
against any fielder whose wild throw in attempting to prevent
a runner's advance permits that runner or any other runner to
advance one or more bases beyond the base he would have reached
had the throw not been wild.
(3) An error shall be charged
against any fielder whose throw takes an unnatural bounce, or
touches a base or the pitcher's plate, or touches a runner, a
fielder or an umpire, thereby permitting any runner to advance.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when it appears to be
an injustice to a fielder whose throw was accurate. Every base
advanced by a runner must be accounted for.
(4) Charge only one error on
any wild throw, regardless of the number of bases advanced by
one or more runners.
(e) An error shall be charged
against any fielder whose failure to stop, or try to stop, an
accurately thrown ball permits a runner to advance, providing
there was occasion for the throw. If such throw be made to second
base, the scorer shall determine whether it was the duty of the
second baseman or the shortstop to stop the ball, and an error
shall be charged to the negligent player.
NOTE: If in the scorer's judgment there was no occasion
for the throw, an error shall be charged to the fielder who threw
(f) When an umpire awards the
batter or any runner or runners one or more bases because of
interference or obstruction, charge the fielder who committed
the interference or obstruction with one error, no matter how
many bases the batter, or runner or runners, may be advanced.
NOTE: Do not charge an error if obstruction does
not change the play in the opinion of the scorer.
10.14 No error shall be charged in the following cases:
(a) No error shall be charged
against the catcher when after receiving the pitch, he makes
a wild throw attempting to prevent a stolen base, unless the
wild throw permits the stealing runner to advance one or more
extra bases, or permits any other runner to advance one or more
(b) No error shall be charged
against any fielder who makes a wild throw if in the scorer's
judgment the runner would not have been put out with ordinary
effort by a good throw, unless such wild throw permits any runner
to advance beyond the base he would have reached had the throw
not been wild.
(c) No error shall be charged
against any fielder when he makes a wild throw in attempting
to complete a double play or triple play, unless such wild throw
enables any runner to advance beyond the base he would have reached
had the throw not been wild.
NOTE: When a fielder muffs a thrown ball which, if
held, would have completed a double play or triple play, charge
an error to the fielder who drops the ball and credit an assist
to the fielder who made the throw.
(d) No error shall be charged
against any fielder when, after fumbling a ground ball or dropping
a fly ball, a line drive or a thrown ball, he recovers the ball
in time to force out a runner at any base.
(e) No error shall be charged
against any fielder who permits a foul fly to fall safe with
a runner on third base before two are out, if in the scorer's
judgment the fielder deliberately refuses the catch in order
that the runner on third shall not score after the catch.
(f) Because the pitcher and catcher
handle the ball much more than other fielders, certain misplays
on pitched balls are defined in Rule 10.15 as wild pitches and
passed balls. No error shall be charged when a wild pitch or
passed ball is scored.
(1) No error shall be charged
when the batter is awarded first base on four called balls or
because he was touched by a pitched ball, or when he reaches
first base as the result of a wild pitch or passed ball.
(i) When the third strike is
a wild pitch, permitting the batter to reach first base, score
a strikeout and a wild pitch.
(ii) When the third strike is
a passed ball, permitting the batter to reach first base, score
a strikeout and a passed ball.
(2) No error shall be charged
when a runner or runners advance as the result of a passed ball,
a wild pitch or a balk.
(i) When the fourth called ball
is a wild pitch or a passed ball, and as a result
(a) the batter runner advances
to a base beyond first base;
(b) any runner forced to advance
by the base on balls advances more than one base, or
(c) any runner, not forced to
advance, advances one or more bases, score the base on balls,
and also the wild pitch or passed ball, as the case may be;
(ii) When the catcher recovers
the ball after a wild pitch or passed ball on the third strike,
and throws out the batter runner at first base, or tags out the
batter runner, but another runner or runners advance, score the
strikeout, the putout and assists, if any, and credit the advance
of the other runner or runners as having been made on the play.
WILD PITCHES - PASSED BALLS
10.15 (a) A wild pitch shall be charged when a legally
delivered ball is so high, or so wide, or so low that the catcher
does not stop and control the ball by ordinary effort, thereby
permitting a runner or runners to advance.
(1) A wild pitch shall be charged
when a legally delivered ball touches the ground before reaching
home plate and is not handled by the catcher, permitting a runner
or runners to advance.
(b) A catcher shall be charged
with a passed ball when he fails to hold or to control a legally
pitched ball which should have been held or controlled with ordinary
effort, thereby permitting a runner or runners to advance.
BASES ON BALLS
10.16 (a) A base on balls shall be scored whenever a
batter is awarded first base because of four balls having been
pitched outside the strike zone, but when the fourth such ball
touches the batter it shall be scored as a "hit batter."
(See 10.18 (h) for procedure when more than one pitcher is involved
in giving a base on balls: Also see 10.17 (b) relative to substitute
batter who receives base on balls.)
(b) Intentional base on balls
shall be scored when the pitcher makes no attempt to throw the
last pitch to the batter into the strike zone but purposely throws
the ball wide to the catcher outside the catcher's box.
(1) If a batter awarded a base
on balls is called out for refusing to advance to first base,
do not credit the base on balls. Charge a time at bat.
10.17 (a) A strikeout shall be scored whenever:
(1) A batter is put out by a
third strike caught by the catcher;
(2) A batter is put out by a
third strike not caught when there is a runner on first before
two are out;
(3) A batter becomes a runner
because a third strike is not caught;
(4) A batter bunts foul on third
EXCEPTION: If such bunt on third strike results
in a foul fly caught by any fielder, do not score a strikeout.
Credit the fielder who catches such foul fly with a putout.
(b) When the batter leaves the
game with two strikes against him, and the substitute batter
completes a strikeout, charge the strikeout and the time at bat
to the first batter. If the substitute batter completes the turn
at bat in any other manner, including a base on balls, score
the action as having been that of the substitute batter.
10.18 An earned run is a run for which the pitcher is
held accountable. In determining earned runs, the inning should
be reconstructed without the errors (which include catcher's
interference) and passed balls, and the benefit of the doubt
should always be given to the pitcher in determining which bases
would have been reached by errorless play. For the purpose of
determining earned runs, an intentional base on balls, regardless
of the circumstances, shall be construed in exactly the same
manner as any other base on balls.
(a) An earned run shall be charged
every time a runner reaches home base by the aid of safe hits,
sacrifice bunts, a sacrifice fly, stolen bases, putouts, fielder's
choices, bases on balls, hit batters, balks or wild pitches (including
a wild pitch on third strike which permits a batter to reach
first base) before fielding chances have been offered to put
out the offensive team. For the purpose of this rule, a defensive
interference penalty shall be construed as a fielding chance.
(1) A wild pitch is solely the
pitcher's fault, and contributes to an earned run just as a base
on balls or a balk.
(b) No run shall be earned when
scored by a runner who reaches first base
(1) on a hit or otherwise after
his time at bat is prolonged by a muffed foul fly;
(2) because of interference or
(3) because of any fielding error.
(c) No run shall be earned when
scored by a runner whose life is prolonged by an error, if such
runner would have been put out by errorless play.
(d) No run shall be earned when
the runner's advance is aided by an error, a passed ball, or
defensive interference or obstruction, if the scorer judges that
the run would not have scored without the aid of such misplay.
(e) An error by a pitcher is
treated exactly the same as an error by any other fielder in
computing earned runs.
(f) Whenever a fielding error
occurs, the pitcher shall be given the benefit of the doubt in
determining to which bases any runners would have advanced had
the fielding of the defensive team been errorless.
(g) When pitchers are changed
during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not be charged with
any run (earned or unearned) scored by a runner who was on base
at the time he entered the game, nor for runs scored by any runner
who reaches base on a fielder's choice which puts out a runner
left on base by the preceding pitcher.
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge each
pitcher with the number of runners he put on base, rather than
with the individual runners. When a pitcher puts runners on base,
and is relieved, he shall be charged with all runs subsequently
scored up to and including the number of runners he left on base
when he left the game, unless such runners are put out without
action by the batter, i.e., caught stealing, picked off base,
or called out for interference when a batter runner does not
reach first base on the play.
EXCEPTION: see example 7.
EXAMPLES: (1) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2.
B grounds out, sending A to second. C flies out. D singles, scoring
A. Charge run to P1.
(2) P1 walks A and is relieved
by P2. B forces A at second. C grounds out, sending B to second.
D singles, scoring B. Charge run to P1.
(3) P1 walks A and is relieved
by P2. B singles, sending A to third. C grounds to short, and
A is out at home, B going to second. D flies out. E singles,
scoring B. Charge run to P1.
(4) P1 walks A and is relieved
by P2. B walks. C flies out. A is picked off second. D doubles,
scoring B from first. Charge run to P2.
(5) P1 walks A and is relieved
by P2. P2 walks B and is relieved by P3. C forces A at third.
D forces B at third. E hits home run, scoring three runs. Charge
one run to P1; one run to P2, one run to P3.
(6) P1 walks A, and is relieved
by P2, P2 walks B. C singles, filling the bases. D forces A at
home. E singles, scoring B and C. Charge one run to P1 and one
run to P2.
(7) P1 walks A, and is relieved
by P2. P2 allows B to single, but A is out trying for third.
B takes second on the throw. C singles, scoring B. Charge run
(h) A relief pitcher shall not
be held accountable when the first batter to whom he pitches
reaches first base on four called balls if such batter has a
decided advantage in the ball and strike count when pitchers
(1) If, when pitchers are changed,
the count is
2 balls, no strike,
2 balls, 1 strike,
3 balls, no strike,
3 balls, 1 strike,
3 balls, 2 strikes,
and the batter gets a base on
balls, charge that batter and the base on balls to the preceding
pitcher, not to the relief pitcher.
(2) Any other action by such
batter, such as reaching base on a hit, an error, a fielder's
choice, a force out, or being touched by a pitched ball, shall
cause such a batter to be charged to the relief pitcher.
NOTE: The provisions of 10.18 (h) (2) shall not be
construed as affecting or conflicting with the provisions of
(3) If, when pitchers are changed,
the count is
2 balls, 2 strikes,
1 ball, 2 strikes,
1 ball, 1 strike,
1 ball, no strike,
no ball, 2 strikes,
no ball, 1 strike,
charge that batter and his actions
to the relief pitcher.
(i) When pitchers are changed
during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not have the benefit
of previous chances for outs not accepted in determining earned
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge relief
pitchers with earned runs for which they are solely responsible.
In some instances, runs charged as earned against the relief
pitcher can be charged as unearned against the team.
EXAMPLES: (1) With two out, P1 walks A. B reaches
base on an error. P2 relieves P1. C hits home run, scoring three
runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1, one earned run to P2.
(2) With two out, P1 walks A
and B and is relieved by P2. C reaches base on an error. D hits
home run, scoring four runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1,
two unearned runs to P2.
(3) With none out, P1 walks A.
B reaches base on an error. P2 relieves P1. C hits home run,
scoring three runs. D and E strike out. F reaches base on an
error. G hits home run, scoring two runs. Charge two runs, one
earned, to P1. Charge three runs, one earned, to P2.
WINNING AND LOSING PITCHER
10.19 (a) Credit the starting pitcher with a game won
only if he has pitched at least five complete innings and his
team not only is in the lead when he is replaced but remains
in the lead the remainder of the game.
(b) The "must pitch five
complete innings" rule in respect to the starting pitcher
shall be in effect for all games of six or more innings. In a
five inning game, credit the starting pitcher with a game won
if he has pitched at least four complete innings and his team
not only is in the lead when he is replaced but remains in the
lead the remainder of the game.
(c) When the starting pitcher
cannot be credited with the victory because of the provisions
of 10.19 (a) or (b) and more than one relief pitcher is used,
the victory shall be awarded on the following basis:
(1) When, during the tenure of
the starting pitcher, the winning team assumes the lead and maintains
it to the finish of the game, credit the victory to the relief
pitcher judged by the scorer to have been the most effective;
(2) Whenever the score is tied
the game becomes a new contest insofar as the winning and losing
pitcher is concerned;
(3) Once the opposing team assumes
the lead all pitchers who have pitched up to that point are excluded
from being credited with the victory except that if the pitcher
against whose pitching the opposing team gained the lead continues
to pitch until his team regains the lead, which it holds to the
finish of the game, that pitcher shall be the winning pitcher;
(4) The winning relief pitcher
shall be the one who is the pitcher of record when his team assumes
the lead and maintains it to the finish of the game.
EXCEPTION: Do not credit a victory to a relief pitcher
who is ineffective in a brief appearance, when a succeeding relief
pitcher pitches effectively in helping his team maintain the
lead. In such cases, credit the succeeding relief pitcher with
(d) When a pitcher is removed
for a substitute batter or substitute runner, all runs scored
by his team during the inning in which he is removed shall be
credited to his benefit in determining the pitcher of record
when his team assumes the lead.
(e) Regardless of how many innings
the first pitcher has pitched, he shall be charged with the loss
of the game if he is replaced when his team is behind in the
score, or falls behind because of runs charged to him after he
is replaced, and his team thereafter fails either to tie the
score or gain the lead.
(f) No pitcher shall be credited
with pitching a shutout unless he pitches the complete game,
or unless he enters the game with none out before the opposing
team has scored in the first inning, puts out the side without
a run scoring and pitches all the rest of the game. When two
or more pitchers combine to pitch a shutout a notation to that
effect should be included in the league's official pitching records.
(g) In some non championship
games (such as the Major League All Star Game) it is provided
in advance that each pitcher shall work a stated number of innings,
usually two or three. In such games, it is customary to credit
the victory to the pitcher of record, whether starter or reliever,
when the winning team takes a lead which it maintains to the
end of the game, unless such pitcher is knocked out after the
winning team has a commanding lead, and the scorer believes a
subsequent pitcher is entitled to credit for the victory.
SAVES FOR RELIEF PITCHERS
10.20 Credit a pitcher with a save when he meets all
three of the following conditions:
(1) He is the finishing pitcher
in a game won by his club; and
(2) He is not the winning pitcher;
(3) He qualifies under one of
the following conditions:
(a) He enters the game with a
lead of no more than three runs and pitches for at least one
(b) He enters the game, regardless
of the count, with the potential tying run either on base, or
at bat, or on deck (that is, the potential tying run is either
already on base or is one of the first two batsmen he faces);
(c) He pitches effectively for
at least three innings. No more than one save may be credited
in each game.
10.21 The league president shall appoint an official
statistician. The statistician shall maintain an accumulative
record of all the batting, fielding, running and pitching records
specified in 10.02 for every player who appears in a league championship
game. The statistician shall prepare a tabulated report at the
end of the season, including all individual and team records
for every championship game, and shall submit this report to
the league president. This report shall identify each player
by his first name and surname, and shall indicate as to each
batter whether he bats righthanded, lefthanded or both ways;
as to each fielder and pitcher, whether he throws righthanded
or lefthanded. When a player listed in the starting lineup for
the visiting club is substituted for before he plays defensively,
he shall not receive credit in the defensive statistics (fielding),
unless he actually plays that position during a game. All such
players, however, shall be credited with one game played (in
"batting statistics") as long as they are announced
into the game or listed on the official lineup card. Any games
played to break a divisional tie shall be included in the statistics
for that championship season.
DETERMINING PERCENTAGE RECORDS
10.22 To compute
(a) Percentage of games won and
lost, divide the number of games won by the total games won and
(b) Batting average, divide the
total number of safe hits (not the total bases on hits) by the
total times at bat, as defined in 10.02 (a);
(c) Slugging percentage, divide
the total bases of all safe hits by the total times at bat, as
defined in 10.02 (a);
(d) Fielding average, divide
the total putouts and assists by the total of putouts, assists
(e) Pitcher's earned run average,
multiply the total earned runs charged against his pitching by
9, and divide the result by the total number of innings he pitched.
NOTE: Earned run average shall be calculated on the
basis of total innings pitched including fractional innings.
EXAMPLE: 9 1/3 innings pitched and 3 earned runs is an
earned run average of 2.89 (3 ER times 9 divided by 9 1/3 equals
(f) On base percentage, divide
the total of hits, all bases on balls, and hit by pitch by the
total of at bats, all bases on balls, hit by pitch and sacrifice
NOTE: For the purpose of computing on base percentage,
ignore being awarded first base on interference or obstruction.
MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL
10.23 To assure uniformity in establishing the batting,
pitching and fielding championships of professional leagues,
such champions shall meet the following minimum performance standards:
(a) The individual batting champion
or slugging champion shall be the player with the highest batting
average or slugging percentage, provided he is credited with
as many or more total appearances at the plate in League Championship
games as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league
that season, multiplied by 3.1 in the case of a major league
EXCEPTION: However, if there is any player with
fewer than the required number of plate appearances whose average
would be the highest, if he were charged with the required number
of plate appearances or official at bats, then that player shall
be awarded the batting championship or slugging championship.
EXAMPLE: If a major league schedules 162 games
for each club, 502 plate appearances qualify (162 times 3.1 equals
502). If a National Association league schedules 140 games for
each club, 378 plate appearances qualify (140 times 2.7 equals
378). Total appearances at the plate shall include official times
at bat, plus bases on balls, times hit by pitcher, sacrifice
hits, sacrifice flies and times awarded first base because of
interference or obstruction.
(b) The individual pitching champion
shall be the pitcher with the lowest earned run average, provided
that he has pitched at least as many innings as the number of
games scheduled for each club in his league that season.
EXCEPTION: However, pitchers in National Association
leagues shall qualify for the pitching championship by having
the lowest earned run average and having pitched at least as
many innings as 80% of the number of games scheduled for each
club in his league that season.
(c) The individual fielding champions
shall be the fielders with the highest fielding average at each
(1) A catcher must have participated
as a catcher in at least one half the number of games scheduled
for each club in his league that season;
(2) An infielder or outfielder
must have participated at his position in at least two thirds
of the number of games scheduled for each club in his league
(3) A pitcher must have pitched
at least as many innings as the number of games scheduled for
each club in his league that season.
EXCEPTION: If another pitcher has a fielding average
as high or higher, and has handled more total chances in a lesser
number of innings, he shall be the fielding champion.
GUIDELINES FOR CUMULATIVE
10.24 CONSECUTIVE HITTING
(a) A consecutive hitting streak
shall not be terminated if the plate appearance results in a
base on balls, hit batsman, defensive interference or a sacrifice
bunt. A sacrifice fly shall terminate the streak.
(b) CONSECUTIVE GAME HITTING
STREAKS. A consecutive game hitting streak shall not be terminated
if all the player's plate appearances (one or more) result in
a base on balls, hit batsman, defensive interference or a sacrifice
bunt. The streak shall terminate if the player has a sacrifice
fly and no hit. The player's individual consecutive game hitting
streak shall be determined by the consecutive games in which
the player appears and is not determined by his club's games.
(c) CONSECUTIVE PLAYING STREAK.
A consecutive game playing streak shall be extended if the player
plays one half inning on defense, or if he completes a time at
bat by reaching base or being put out. A pinch running appearance
only shall not extend the streak. If a player is ejected from
a game by an umpire before he can comply with the requirements
of this rule, his streak shall continue.
(d) SUSPENDED GAMES. For the
purpose of this rule, all performances in the completion of a
suspended game shall be considered as occurring on the original
date of the game.
©1999 Major League Baseball Properties, Inc.